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引用本文:吴雪惠, . 江西省外来植物现状研究[J]. 生物安全学报, .
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江西省外来植物现状研究
吴雪惠,
作者单位邮编
吴雪惠  330000
  
摘要:
【目的】外来植物对各地区植物资源的丰富程度及生态环境有着重要影响。为完善江西省外来植物本底调查数据,以期为江西省的外来入侵植物预防和预警机制构建提供依据。【方法】通过文献、标本研究以及野外实地调查,对江西外来植物种类、原产地、生活型、引入途径、引入时间、在各地级市的分布情况以及外来入侵植物的种类进行分析、探讨。【结果】江西省外来植物有106科407属599种:菊科最多(85种,14.19%),其次是豆科(52种,8.68%),10种以下的科有91个,占总科的85.85%;它们主要源于美洲(49.25%),其次是亚洲(20.8%),欧洲第三(13.81%),地中海和大洋洲较少;外来植物中草本植物种类最多,乔木次之,许多外来乔木仅见于庐山植物园和赣南树木园;大部分被用于观赏、饲料、药用等有意引入;江西省的外来入侵植物有53科168属267种;九江、赣州和南昌由于地理位置优越及经济地位突出被入侵较严重。【结论】江西省外来植物种类丰富,引入途径多样,入侵物种较多。建议建立外来植物数据库,明确外来植物引种防控对象,加强外来植物监管监测,科学引种;制订和更新外来植物防控的具体政策法规;同时,加大入侵危害宣传,及时防控外来植物逃逸入侵对本省生态环境造成侵害。
关键词:  江西省  生物多样性  外来植物  入侵植物  原产地
DOI:
基金项目:国家林业和草原局科技发展中心项目
相关附件:   附表1 江西省外来植物名录及分布  图1 江西省外来植物科的种类组成  图2 江西省外来植物生活型分析  图3 江西外来植物引入时间  图4 江西省各地级市外来入侵植物数量  万方20210108(5.79%)  附件1  附件2  附件3  附件4  附件5  附件6  附件7  附件1  附件2
Study on the Alien Plants in Jiangxi Province, China
Abstract:
【Objective】Alien plants play an important part in the richness of plant resources and ecological environment in various regions. To improve the data of Jiangxi local alien species resources, and also provide a basis for the construction of effective prevention and early warning mechanism for invasive plants in Jiangxi Province.【Method】Based on literature and specimen study and field investigation, we analyzed and discussed the floristic composition, original place, life form, introduction way, introduction time, and distribution of invasive alien species in prefecture-level cities of Jiangxi.【Result】570 species, 17 varieties and 3 forms of alien plants belonging to 106 families and 407 genera are recorded in Jiangxi. Asteraceae serves as the most dominant family (85 species, 14.19%), next is Fabaceae (52 species, 8.68%); species within 91 families are under 10 and account for 85.85% in total families. The alien species in Jiangxi mainly came from American (49.25%), followed by those with Asian origins (20.8%) and European was third (13.81%), but few of them were introduced from Mediterranean and Oceania. Herbs are prevalent among alien plants, arbors are the next and are endemic in Lushan Botanical Garden and Gannan Arboretum. The alien species were mainly introduced for ornamental, feed and medicinal purposes. 267 invasive plants in 53 families and 168 genera were recorded in Jiangxi. Jiujiang, Ganzhou, and Nanchang have been invaded seriously due to their advantageous geographical position and economic status.【Conclusion】The alien plants were richness with various introduction ways and many of them have been invasive species in Jiangxi. Suggestions on controlling alien plants should be put forward in time, such as the establishment of a database of alien plants to clarify the names of alien plants to be introduced and controlled, supervision and detection improvement, and scientific introduction. Additionally, increasing the publicity of invasion hazards and conducting timely prevention and control interventions are also necessary to prevent and control the alien plants from escaping and invading.
Key words:  Jiangxi  biodiversity  alien plants  alien invasion plants  original locality