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引用本文:陈义永,高养春,彭衡,熊薇,李世国,战爱斌. 松花江流域大型底栖动物群落结构与水质评价[J]. 生物安全学报, 2018, 27(2): 95-104.
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松花江流域大型底栖动物群落结构与水质评价
陈义永1,2, 高养春1,2, 彭衡1,2, 熊薇1, 李世国1, 战爱斌1,2
1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 北京 100085;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
[目的] 松花江流域是中国最早的工业基地之一,其水生态环境遭到严重破坏,环境保护工作面临巨大挑战。开展松花江流域水质评价及典型生物类群多样性状况调查,可为松花江流域生态系统的保护和修复提供依据。[方法] 于2016年7月调查整个松花江流域近岸的大型底栖动物群落组成和测定水质理化指标,开展其水质理化特征评价和生物指数评价,并探讨底栖动物群落分布与水环境因子间的关系。[结果] 理化指标评价结果显示,南源松花江水质状况最差,处于中度污染;北源松花江处于轻度污染;梧桐河水质最好,处于良好状态。松花江流域3个河段的底栖动物群落结构存在空间差异性。另外,梧桐河的物种多样性最高,北源松花江次之,南源松花江最低。溶解氧和营养元素K的浓度是驱动底栖动物群落组成发生显著性差异的主要环境因子。生物指数评价结果显示,3个河段水质均处于轻度污染状态。[结论] 松花江流域水质处于轻度到中度污染状态。有机污染是松花江流域面临的主要水质环境问题,对松花江流域底栖动物群落结构产生了显著影响。因此,控制有机质的输入是维持松花江流域水生态系统平衡的重要举措之一。
关键词:  松花江  底栖无脊椎动物  群落结构  有机污染  生物指数  水质评价
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.2095-1787.2018.02.004
基金项目:水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2015ZX07201-008-09)
附件
Community structure of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality assessment in the Songhua River, China
CHEN Yiyong1,2, GAO Yangchun1,2, PENG Heng1,2, XIONG Wei1, LI Shiguo1, ZHAN Aibin1,2
1.Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
[Aim] As one of the oldest industrial bases in China, the Songhua River has been seriously damaged, and environmental protection is facing huge challenges. Therefore, it is urgent to carry out studies on water quality and the diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates.[Method] In July 2016, the macroinvertebrate communities in the Songhua River were investigated, together with the water quality indicators and biological indices. Furthermore, the relationship between community structure and environmental factors was analyzed by redundancy analysis.[Result] Three stream segments of the Songhua River showed different environment gradients. Based on the single factor water quality assessment, the southern Songhua River was in moderate pollution and the water in the northern Songhua River was not seriously polluted. The water quality of a tributary branch, the Wutong River had the best water quality. The geographical distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates varied greatly in the different zones. The species diversity of the Wutong River was the highest, followed by the northern Songhua River, and it was the lowest in the southern Songhua River. The redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that dissolved oxygen (DO) and potassium (K) concentrations were the leading factors driving the patterns of benthic macroinvertebrates communities. Based on two biological indices, all three stream segments in the Songhua River were slightly polluted.[Conclusion] The water of the Songhua River had light-to-moderate pollution levels. Furthermore, organic pollution was the main environmental problem, which influenced the benthic macroinvertebrate communities. Therefore, further efforts should be made to control the input of organic pollution in order to keep acceptable water quality in the Songhua River.
Key words:  Songhua River  benthic macroinvertebrates  community structure  organic pollution  biological indices  water quality assessment