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引用本文:罗闻芙,张伟,王文卿,吴玉华,吾尔尼沙·卡得尔,马德英. 新疆葡萄穴粉虱的形态学及生物学特性[J]. 生物安全学报, 2018, 27(1): 31-34.
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新疆葡萄穴粉虱的形态学及生物学特性
罗闻芙1,2, 张伟3, 王文卿1, 吴玉华2, 吾尔尼沙·卡得尔2, 马德英1
1.新疆农业大学农学院, 农林有害生物监测与安全防控重点实验室, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830052;2.新疆吐鲁番市 林果业技术推广服务中心, 新疆 吐鲁番 838000;3.新疆吐鲁番市鄯善县林业局, 新疆 鄯善 838200
摘要:
[目的]葡萄穴粉虱是近年来入侵新疆吐鲁番地区的一种新害虫,明确其在新疆吐鲁番地区的生物学特性及发生危害情况,可为防治策略的制定提供科学依据。[方法]通过室内观察和田间调查,了解葡萄穴粉虱的形态学特征及生物学特性。[结果]葡萄穴粉虱属过渐变态。成虫复眼红棕色,翅膀表面覆盖白色蜡粉。卵倒锥形。若虫共4龄,扁椭圆形,体缘有蜡丝,末龄若虫在体壳内化蛹。4龄若虫(拟蛹)有半透明和黑色2型,越冬型4龄若虫(拟蛹)为黑色且有金属光泽。该虫在吐鲁番1年发生3~4代。越冬代成虫于4月上中旬破蛹羽化,开始在葡萄园危害,5月中旬第1代若虫孵化,5月下旬为孵化高峰;6月中旬2代若虫开始孵化,6月下旬-7月初为孵化高峰,世代重叠严重,10月中下旬之后以越冬代蛹在枯叶和枯枝上越冬。除为害葡萄外,葡萄穴粉虱还危害五叶地锦等葡萄科植物。[结论]在葡萄冬季埋土前或春季上架时,清除枯枝落叶可以大量减少越冬虫源,减轻防治压力。5月中旬第一代若虫孵化高峰期是化学防治的关键时期。在重点开展葡萄园防治的同时,应加强对五叶地锦等园林植物的防治。
关键词:  葡萄穴粉虱  形态学  生物学  特性  新疆
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.2095-1787.2018.01.004
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFC1200602)
附件
The morphological and biological characteristics of Aleurolobus shantungi in Xinjiang
LUO Wenfu1,2, ZHANG Wei3, WANG Wenqing1, WU Yuhua2, WUERNISHA Kadeer2, MA Deying1
1.Key Laboratory of the Pest Monitoring and Safety Control of Crops and Forests College of Agronomy, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830052, China;2.Xinjiang Turpan City Fruit Industry Technology Extension Service Center, Turpan, Xinjiang 838000, China;3.Forestry Bureau of Shanshan County, Turpan City, Shanshan, Xinjiang 838200, China
Abstract:
[Aim] Aleurolobus shantungi is a new pest that has invaded the Turpan region of Xinjiang in recent years. The preliminary study on the morphological and biological characteristics of the species can provide scientific information for its control in Xinjiang.[Method] Morphological and biological characteristics of A. shantungi were observed by means of indoor observations and field investigation.[Result] A. shantungi is a gradual metamorphosis insect. The compound eyes of adult are in reddish brown, wings surface covered with white wax powder. Egg has a shape of an inverted cone. Nymphs of the insect are oval flat, with silky margins, 4 instars totally. The nymphs of 4th instar exhibit two life types:translucent and black or black and metallic overwintering nymph. Three to 4 generations occur per year in the Turpan region. The overwinter generation emerges in early to middle of April and the first generation nymphs hatched in middle of May with their peak time in late May. The second generation nymphs hatched in middle of June, and the different generations overlapped. Pupae overwinter on dead leaves and branches in late middle of October. The whitefly damages Parthenocissus quinquefolia.[Conclusion] The number of overwintering pupae can be reduced by clearing away dead leaves and branches in winter and early spring before sprouting. The key period for the chemical control of whitefly is during the peak time of 1st nymph instar in mid-May. Pest control in vineyards should help reduce infestation in P. quinquefolia and other garden plants.
Key words:  Aleurolobus shantungi  morphology  biology  characteristics  Xinjiang