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引用本文:黄顶成,张润志. 中国外来入侵种的类群、原产地及变化趋势[J]. 生物安全学报, 2011, 20(2): 113-118.
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中国外来入侵种的类群、原产地及变化趋势
黄顶成, 张润志
中国科学院动物研究所,北京100101
摘要:
随着我国对外开放范围的不断扩大,无意引进的入侵种对我国农林生产和生态安全的威胁进一步加大,但至今鲜有关于我国外来入侵种的类群组成、原产地结构及其变化趋势的系统报道。因此,本文对我国234种无意引进的外来入侵种进行研究,以期为口岸检疫与监测提供参考。结果发现,这些物种属于7界16门27纲65目122科。昆虫纲和木兰纲的入侵种分别占总数的28.[KG-*8]2%和33.[KG-*8]3%。原产于美洲和欧洲的入侵种分别占总数的51.[KG-*8]7%和24.[KG-*8]4%。1969~2008年,昆虫纲的入侵种每10年的增加数量及其在每10年新增的所有入侵种中所占的比例均呈明显的上升趋势,分别从1969~1978年的2种和12.[KG-*8]5%增加到1999~2008年的17种和77.[KG-*8]3%。1899~2008年,原产于美洲的入侵种在每10年新增的所有入侵种中所占的比例基本稳定在55%~65%。1959~2008年,每10年新增的原产于美洲的入侵种中,昆虫所占的比例明显增加,从1959~1969年的0增加到1999~2008年的81.[KG-*8]8%。这表明昆虫已成为我国外来入侵种中最主要的类群之一,美洲仍是其最主要的原产地之一。
关键词:  生物入侵  外来种  无意引进  首次发现  原产地  变化趋势  中国
DOI:
基金项目:国家973计划项目(2009CB119204);公益性(农业)行业专项(200903042);国家基金委特殊学科点项目(J0930004)
附件
Taxonomic categorisation, origins and trends of invasive alien species in China
Dingcheng HUANG, Runzhi ZHANG
Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:
The opening of China to the world expands continusely, the threats of invasive alien species (IASs) unintentionally introduced into China to agriculture and forestry production and eco safety are further enlarged, yet few studies have examined the distribution and trends of newly detected IASs with respect to taxonomic categorisation and origin in this country. Here we checked a total of 234 IASs that were unintentionally introduced into China. The study aims to provide information that may help develop better programs for border inspection and post border early detection. We found 28.[KG-*8]2% and 33.[KG-*8]3% of them were Magnoliopsida and Insecta, respectively; 51.[KG-*8]7% and 24.[KG-*8]4% of them were native to America and Europe respectively. In 1969~2008, the number of newly detected alien insects per decade, and the proportion of insects to all newly detected IASs per decade obviously increased , from 2 species (12.[KG-*8]5%) in 1969~1978 to 17 species (77.[KG-*8]3%) in 1999~2008, respectively. In 1899~2008, the proportion of species native to America was basically stable between 55% and 65%. In 1959~2008, the proportion of insects to all newly detected IASs of American origin per decade increased , from 0 in 1959~1968 to 81.[KG-*8]8% in 1999~2008. These results indicated that in China, insects have become one of the most important groups of newly detected IASs, and North America might still be one of the most important source of invaders.
Key words:  biological invasions  alien species  unintentional introduction  first detection  origin  trends  China