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引用本文:栾军波,刘树生. 动物入侵的行为机制[J]. 生物安全学报, 2011, 20(1): 29-36.
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动物入侵的行为机制
栾军波,刘树生
作者单位
栾军波 浙江大学昆虫科学研究所农业部作物病虫分子生物学重点开放实验室浙江 杭州 310029 
刘树生 浙江大学昆虫科学研究所农业部作物病虫分子生物学重点开放实验室浙江 杭州 310029 
摘要:
行为特征可在外来动物建立种群和扩张过程中发挥重要作用,因此,要正确理解动物入侵,常常需要仔细研究其行为机制。20世纪80年代以来,随着动物入侵规模在世界各地的迅速加剧,有关其行为机制的研究也受到了广泛关注。最近一些研究表明,一些入侵动物种内攻击和觅食等行为具有可塑性,因此它们能够灵活应对多变的环境条件,这对于种群的建立和维持至关重要;入侵动物与土著物种发生行为互作时,往往占据优势,从而取代土著物种,并有助于其地域扩张;入侵动物长距离扩散可以提高其地域扩张速度,许多行为可与扩散行为结合进一步促进扩张。今后需要加强对入侵动物的行为分析,使之全面地融合到生物入侵的研究之中。这不仅可以提高对外来物种入侵的预警和治理能力,而且为探索动物行为的奥秘以及动物间行为互作在物种进化中的意义提供了独特的机会。
关键词:  动物入侵  行为  可塑性  攻击  交配  扩散  扩张
DOI:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2009CB119203);国家自然科学基金重点项目(30730061)
附件
Behavioral mechanisms in animal invasions
Jun bo LUAN,Shu sheng LIU
Abstract:
Behavioral characteristics may play a key role in the establishment and spread of alien animal species, and the understanding of many animal invasions often requires a careful assessment of behavioral mechanisms. Since 1980s, animal invasions have intensified all over the world and studies on behavioral mechanisms connected to successful animal invasions have received more attention. Some invasive animals show flexibility in intraspecific aggression and feeding behaviour, which allows them to effectively cope with the changing environment. Thus, behavioral flexibility makes critical contributions to population establishment and persistence. Successful invaders often exhibit advantages in behavioral interactions over indigenous species, and such may contribute to the displacement of indigenous species. Such behavioral mechanisms also play an important role in their spread. The long distance dispersal behavior of invasive animals can increase invasion rates. Many behavioral characteristics can enhance invasion success by coupling behaviors with dispersal strategies that are especially important during natural range expansions. The few successful studies to date indicate that behavioral analyses should be more actively and fully integrated into research on biological invasions. Understanding the behavioral mechanisms in animal invasions will improve our ability to predict invasion of alien species and manage biological invasions more effectively. In addition to enhancing a general understanding of invasion processes, such approaches provide potentially unique opportunities for basic research in animal behavior as well as the significance of behavioral interactions in species evolution.
Key words:  animal invasions  behavior  flexibility  aggression  copulation  dispersal  spread